Malacca (Malay: Melaka, dubbed "The Historic State" ) is the third smallest Malaysian state after Perlis and Penang. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Straits of Malacca. It borders Negeri Sembilan to the north and Johor to the south. The capital is Malacca City, which is 148 kilometres (92 miles) south east of Malaysia's capital city Kuala Lumpur, 235 kilometres (146 miles) north west to Johor's largest city Johor Bahru, and 95 km (59 miles) north west to Johor's second largest city, Batu Pahat. This historical city centre has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 7 July 2008.
Although it was the location of one of the earliest Malay sultanates, the monarchy was abolished when the Portuguese conquered it in 1511. The head of state is the Yang di-Pertua Negeri or Governor, rather than a Sultan.
|Malacca Sultanate||approx. 1400|
|Japanese occupation||15 January 1942|
|Malayan Union||1 April 1946|
|Federation of Malaya||31 January 1948|
|Malaysia||16 September 1963|
Sultanate of MalaccaBefore the arrival of the first Sultan, Malacca was a fishing village inhabited by local Malays. Malacca was founded by Parameswara, also known as Iskandar Shah or Sri Majara, the last Raja of Singapura (present day Singapore) following a Majapahit attack in 1377. He found his way to Malacca around 1400 where he found a good port—it was accessible in all seasons and on the strategically located narrowest point of the Malacca Straits.
According to a popular legend, Parameswara was resting under a tree near a river during a hunt, when one of his dogs cornered a mouse deer. In self-defence, the mouse deer pushed the dog into the river. Impressed by the courage of the deer, and taking it as a propitious omen of the weak overcoming the powerful, Parameswara decided then and there to found an empire on that very spot. He named it 'Melaka' after the tree where he had just taken shelter at, the Melaka tree (Malay: Pokok Melaka).
In collaboration with allies from the sea-people (orang laut), the wandering proto-Malay privateers of the Straits, he established Malacca as an international port by compelling passing ships to call there, and establishing fair and reliable facilities for warehousing and trade.
Zheng He's fleet. To enhance relations, Hang Li Po, according to local folklore a daughter of the Ming Emperor of China, arrived in Malacca, accompanied by 500 attendants, to marry Sultan Manshur Shah who reigned from 1456 until 1477. Her attendants married locals and settled mostly in Bukit China (Bukit Cina). (See Zheng He in Malacca).
"In the 9th month of the year 1481 envoys arrived with the [......] Malacca again sent envoys to China in 1481 to inform the Chinese that, while Malaccan envoys were returning to Malacca from China in 1469, the Vietnamese attacked the Malaccans, killing some of them while castrating the young and enslaving them. The Malaccans reported that Vietnam was in control of Champa and also sought to conquer Malacca, but the Malaccans did not fight back, because they did not want to fight against another state that was a tributary to China without permission from the Chinese. They requested to confront the Vietnamese delegation to China which was in China at the time, but the Chinese informed them since the incident was years old, they could do nothing about it, and the Emperor sent a letter to the Vietnamese ruler reproaching him for the incident. The Chinese Emperor also ordered the Malaccans to raise soldiers and fight back with violent force if the Vietnamese attacked them again.
Portuguese colonyAlfonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships. They conquered the city on 24 August 1511. After seizing the city Afonso de Albuquerque spared the Hindu, Chinese and Burmese inhabitants but had the Muslim inhabitants massacred or sold into slavery.
It soon became clear that Portuguese control of Malacca did not also mean they controlled Asian trade centred there. Their Malaccan rule was severely hampered by administrative and economic difficulties. Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating Asian trade, the Portuguese had disrupted the organisation of the network. The centralised port of exchange of Asian wealth had now gone, as was a Malay state to police the Straits of Malacca that made it safe for commercial traffic. Trade was now scattered over a number of ports among bitter warfare in the Straits.
Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier spent several months in Malacca in 1545, 1546, and 1549. In 1641, the Dutch defeated the Portuguese in an effort to capture Malacca, with the help of the Sultan of Johore.
Dutch ruleThe Dutch ruled Malacca from 1641 to 1798 but they were not interested in developing it as a trading centre, placing greater importance to Batavia (Jakarta) on Java as their administrative centre. However they still built their landmark, better known as the Stadthuys or Red Building.
Colony of Great BritainMalacca was ceded to the British in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 in exchange for Bencoolen on Sumatra. From 1826 to 1946 Malacca was under the rule of the British, first by the British East India Company and then as a Crown Colony. It formed part of the Straits Settlements, together with Singapore and Penang. After the dissolution of this crown colony, Malacca and Penang became part of the Malayan Union, which later became the Federation of Malaya and eventually Malaysia.
GeographyThe state of Malacca covers an area of 1,664 km2 (642 sq mi). The state is divided into 3 districts: Central Malacca (Melaka Tengah) (314 km²), Alor Gajah (660 km²), and Jasin (676 km²). Malacca sits upon the southwestern coast of the Malay Peninsula opposite Sumatra, with the state of Negeri Sembilan to the north and Johor to the east. Malacca is situated roughly two-thirds of the way down the west coast, 148 km (92 mi) south of Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia and 245 km (152 mi) north of Singapore and commands a central position on the Straits of Malacca. The state capital is Malacca Town. The offshore Pulau Besar, Pulau Upeh and the exclave Tanjung Tuan are also parts of Malacca.
State governmentMalacca is administered by its Legislative Assembly and Executive Committee. The State Assembly represents the highest authority in the state and decides on policy matters. The EXCO is responsible to the State Assembly and comprises members who are appointed every five years by the political party in power. It is headed by the Governor (Yang Di-Pertua Negeri) who is appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia.
The Chief Minister's Department is responsible for the overall administration of the State, as well as its political interest. The administrative complex houses the Chief Minister's office, as well as the office of the State Secretariat. For administrative purposes, Malacca is divided into three districts under separate jurisdiction:
- Malacca Central District & Land Office
- Alor Gajah District & Land Office
- Jasin District & Land Office
District and Local AuthorityMalacca is divided into 3 districts and 4 local authorities.
|Rank||District||Area (kmsq)||Population (2008)||District Seat||Local Government|
|!000001||Central Malacca||279.85||503,127||Malacca City||Historical Malacca City Council
Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council
|!000002||Alor Gajah||660.00||182,666||Alor Gajah||Alor Gajah Municipal Council|
|!000003||Jasin District||676.07||135,317||Jasin||Jasin District Council|
EconomyMalacca has adopted as its slogan, "Visiting Malacca Means Visiting Malaysia" ("Melawat Melaka Bererti Melawati Malaysia"). Industrial areas are centred along the edges of the city proper in suburbs which include Batu Berendam, Cheng, Ayer Keroh and Tasik Utama, while outside Malacca city industrial areas include Alor Gajah.
On October 21, 2010 an event was held to announce that Malacca had met the benchmark of 'Developed State' as set out by OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development and a declaration of "Melaka Maju 2010" was made by Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Abd RazakMelaka Maju 2010.
Demographics The ethnic composition of the state is:
- Malays: 63%;
- Chinese: 25.3%, including the Peranakan community;
- Indians, including the Chitty people: 6%;
- Kristang, people with partial Portuguese ancestry: a small community;
- Dutch Eurasians, Eurasians with Dutch ancestry: a minority within the Malacca Eurasian community.
As of 2010 the population of Malacca is 66.1% Muslim, 24.2% Buddhist, 5.7% Hindu, 3.0% Christian, 0.2% Taoist or Chinese religion follower, 0.6% follower of other religions, and 0.2% non-religious.
EducationThe establishment of the Malacca Manipal Medical College in Bukit Baru provided quality medical education.
Malacca has two boarding schools,Sekolah Menengah Sains Muzaffar Syah (MOZAC) and Sekolah Berasrama Penuh Integrasi Selandar (SBPIS). The Ministry of Education of Malaysia enrolls students based on their Ujian Penilaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR) and Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR).
A center for juvenile convicts, Henry Gurney Prisoners School, is in Telok Mas, Malacca. Established in 1949 as High Moral School, it was renamed School of Henry Gurney at 15 May 1950. This center runs rehabilitation programs for male juvenile criminals.
Malacca has one international school, Melaka International School, which caters to the expatriate and also the local community.
Melaka is a center for international education. Universiti Multimedia (MMU) at Bukit Beruang plays a major role in attracting students from all over the world.
There are several institutions that offer nursing education: Institut Kesihatan Sains & Kejururawatan Pantai, Institut Sains Kesihatan Dan Kejururawatan Mahkota, Kolej Kejururawatan & Kesihatan Nilam, and Kolej Perubatan Komplementari Melaka. Institut Kesihatan Sains & Kejururawatan Pantai is linked to Pantai Hospital at Ayer keroh while Institut Sains Kesihatan Dan Kejururawatan Mahkota is linked to Mahkota Medical Center at Melaka Raya.
The Institut Skill Tech in Machap provides training in agriculture. It has a branch in Taman Tasik Utama, Ayer Keroh. The trainees come from the states of Malaysia including Sabah.
Working adults who desire to pursue their education part-time can study at Universiti Terbuka Malaysia (OUM), while for those who wish to obtain an academic diploma can enroll for University of Malaya Center for Continuing Education (UMCCed) at Kolej Sinar.
Malacca provides opportunities to youth in training to be marine professionals via Akademi Laut Malaysia Melaka (ALAM) at Kuala Sungai Baru. Its students come from various backgrounds from all states in Malaysia.
Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) lectures and examinations are provided at Kolej Sinar at Melaka Raya. Kolej Sinar is the only institution in the state that offers complete accounting education. Kolej Sinar is the only approved training center for tourism courses. From a tourist guide course to a diploma in tourism, it offers wide range of qualification for students and professionals.
The state government of Malacca provides financial assistance mainly in the form of loans to local citizens via Melaka Education Trust Fund (TAPEM). Among the facilities provided by TAPEM are Higher Education Loan, Minor Scholarship/Incentive Scholarship for Secondary School, and School Assistance to Primary School Students.
The state has two major libraries. The official library owned by Perbadanan Perpustakaan Melaka, an agency under state government, is Perpustakaan Awam Melaka at Bukit Baru. Another major library opened to public is in Al-Azim Mosque under Majlis Agama Islam Melaka. Inside a mosque and Islamic religious center, the library is accessible to all regardless of races and religious backgrounds.
Health careHospitals in Malacca state are listed below:
- Government hospitals
- Malacca General Hospital
- Jasin District Hospital
- Private Hospitals
- Putra Hospital (formerly known as Southern Hospital, owned by the state government)
- Pantai Hospital Ayer Keroh
- Mahkota Medical Centre
CultureMalacca was inscribed on the World Heritage List on 7 July 2008 together with George Town, the capital of Penang.
Two of the most important museums in Malacca are the Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum and the Malacca Sultanate Palace Museum.
Belacan, a Malay variety of shrimp paste, is prepared from fresh shrimp of a species known as keragu in Malay. .
population of Portuguese descent, who speak a Portuguese creole, are the descendants of colonists from the 16th and 17th centuries. Even to this day, many of the traditions originating with the Portuguese occupation are still practised, i.e. "Intrudu" from Portuguese word "Entrudo" (a water festival that marks the beginning of Lent, the Catholic fasting period), "branyu" (traditional dance), "Santa Cruz" (a yearly Festival of street celebrations). The Portuguese colonists contributed dishes like Devil's Curry and Portuguese egg tarts to the town's cuisine. Ikan Bakar (roasted fish) restaurants in Umbai, Serkam and Alai are also popular.
There is also a sizeable number of Sikhs residing in Malacca, and Sikhs from Malacca and abroad congregate in the gurdwara (Sikh temple) situated in Jalan Temenggong during the last weekend of May, to commemorate the death of its former priest, Sant Baba Sohan Singh Ji, who was elevated to a saint upon passing away. Visitors are welcome but are advised to follow rules and common practices within the premises.
TransportPulau Sebang in Alor Gajah district, 30 km (19 mi) north of Malacca, is the nearest train station that serves Malacca. There were railway tracks from Pulau Sebang to Malacca before World War II but these were dismantled by the Japanese for the construction of the Burmese Death Railway. It was never rebuilt after the war, though traces of the line remain.
Malacca has a bus station, Melaka Sentral which has inter and intracity bus lines. Batu Berendam Airport in Batu Berendam mainly serves Pekan Baru, Subang, Medan and chartered flights from around the region. It also serves as a flight school for Malaysia Flying Academy.
The Ayer Keroh exit at the North-South Expressway is the main entry to Malacca. There are two additional exits along the North-South highway, namely the Simpang Ampat and Jasin exits.
Popular historical attractions
- Fort A Famosa: Constructed by the Portuguese in 1511, it suffered severe structural damage during the Dutch invasion. The plan by the British to destroy it was aborted as a result of the intervention of Sir Stamford Raffles in 1808.
- St. John's Fort: Reconstructed by the Dutch in the third quarter of the 18th century, the cannons in this fort point inland because at that time, the threat to Malacca was mainly from inland rather than the sea.
- St. Peter's Church: Constructed in 1710 under the Dutch administration, the church is the oldest Catholic church in Malaysia. Its façade and decorative embellishment is a mix of both eastern and western architecture. Its bell was delivered from Goa in 1608.
- St. Paul's Church: Constructed by the Portuguese captain, Duarte Coelho, this church was named "Our Lady of The Hill", but was later turned into a burial ground by the Dutch for their noble dead, and renamed "St. Paul's Church". Currently the church is part of the Malaccan Museums Complex. The body of St. Francis Xavier was interred here temporarily before it was taken to Goa, India.
- Christ Church: Constructed in 1753, the structure reflects original Dutch architecture. The building houses hand-crafted church benches, jointless ceiling skylights, a copper replica of the Bible, a headstone written in the Armenian language, and a replica of "The Last Supper".
- Francis Xavier Church: This Gothic church was built by a French priest, Rev. Fabre, in 1849, to commemorate St. Francis Xavier who is also known as the "Apostle of the East". St. Francis Xavier is credited for his Catholic missionary work in Southeast Asia during the 16th century.
- Stadthuys: Constructed in 1650 as the residence of the Dutch Governor and his deputy, the structure reflects Dutch architecture. It is today the "Museum of History and Ethnography". The museum exhibits traditional wedding clothes and artifacts of Melaka, dating back to its days of glory.
- Cheng Hoon Teng Temple: Located along Jalan Tokong (formerly Temple Street) in the core zone of the Malacca Unesco World Heritage Site. It is the oldest functioning temple in Malaysia and grandest temple in Malacca.
- Jonker Street (Jalan Hang Jebat): This street is known for its antique goods.
- Portuguese Square: Located within the Portuguese Settlement, the square is the culmination of Portuguese culture in its full splendour and colours.
- Sri Poyyatha Vinayagar Moorthi Temple: This is the oldest Hindu Temple in Malaysia. It was built in 1781 on land given by the Dutch to the Chitty community.
- Tranquerah Mosque: The oldest mosque in Malacca.
- Kampung Kling Mosque: Kampung Kling Mosque is one of the oldest mosques in Malaysia. It was built around 1784 with the influence of Sumatran architecture. Firstly, there’s no Byzantium dome around. It was replaced by a tiered pyramidal roof. Secondly, just look at the minaret which is structured like a pagoda. There are even Chinese characters carved on the side roof of the mosque.
Twin towns – Sister citiesMalacca is twinned with:
- Tun Ghafar Baba, Malaysia Deputy Prime Minister (1986–1993), Vice-President of the United Malays National Organisation (1962–1987), Malacca Chief Minister (1959–1963).
- Shirley Geok-lin Lim, award winning novelist, writer and Professor of English at the University of California, Santa Barbara
- Maria Jane Dyer (Maria Jane Taylor), born in Malacca in 1837, pioneer missionary to China, daughter of Samuel Dyer and Maria (Tarn) Dyer, she became the wife of James Hudson Taylor, founder of the China Inland Mission.
Johor is surrounded by Pahang to the north, Malacca and Negeri Sembilan to the northwest, and the Straits of Johor to the south which separates Johor and the Republic of Singapore. The state also shares a maritime border with the Riau Archipelago from the east and Riau mainland on the west by the South China Sea and the Strait of Malacca respectively, both of Indonesian territories.
Johor is also known by its Arabic honorific, Darul Ta'zim, or "Abode of Dignity", and as Johore in English.
EtymologyThe name "Johor" originated from the Arabic word Jauhar, 'gem/jewel'. Malays tend to name a place after natural objects in great abundance or having visual dominance. Before the name Johor was adopted, the area south of the Muar River to Singapore island was known as Ujong Tanah or 'land's end' in Malay, due to its location at the end of the Malay Peninsula. Coincidentally, Johor is the most southern point of the Asian continental mainland.
HistoryIn the early 16th century, the Sultanate of Johor was founded by the Alauddin Riayat Shah II, the son of Mahmud Shah, the last Sultan of Malacca who fled from the invading Portuguese in Malacca. Johor sultanate was one of the two successor states of the Melaka empire. Upon Malacca's defeat to the Portuguese in 1511, Alauddin Riayat Shah II established a monarchy in Johor which posed a threat to the Portuguese. The Sultanate of Perak was the other successor state of Malacca and was established by Mahmud Shah's other son, Muzaffar Shah I. During Johor's peak the whole of Pahang and the present day Indonesian territories of the Riau archipelago and part of Sumatra Island was under Johor's rule.
A series of succession struggles were interspersed with strategic alliances struck with regional clans and foreign powers, which maintained Johor's political and economic hold in the Straits. In competition with the Acehnese of northern Sumatra and the port-kingdom of Malacca under Portuguese rule, Johor engaged in prolonged warfare with their rivals, often striking alliances with friendly Malay states and with the Dutch. In 1641, Johor in cooperation with the Dutch succeeded in capturing Malacca. By 1660, Johor had become a flourishing entrepôt, although weakening and splintering of the empire in the late seventeenth and eighteenth century reduced its sovereignty.
In the 18th century, the Bugis of Sulawesi and the Minangkabau of Sumatra controlled the political powers in the Johor-Riau Empire. However, in the early 19th century, Malay and Bugis rivalry commanded the scene. In 1819, the Johor-Riau Empire was divided up into the mainland Johor, controlled by the Temenggong, and the Sultanate of Riau-Lingga, controlled by the Bugis. In 1855, under the terms of a treaty between the British in Singapore and Sultan Ali of Johor, control of the state was formally ceded to Dato' Temenggong Daing Ibrahim, with the exception of the Kesang area (Muar), which was handed over in 1877. Temenggong Ibrahim opened up Bandar Tanjung Puteri (later to become Johor's present-day capital) in south Johor as a major town.
Queen Victoria of England. In 1886, he was formally crowned the Sultan of Johor. Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor (1864–1895) implemented a state constitution, developed a British-style administration and constructed the Istana Besar, the official residence of the Sultan. For his achievements, Sultan Abu Bakar is known by the title "Father of Modern Johor". The increased demand for black pepper and gambier in the nineteenth century lead to the opening up of farmlands to the influx of Chinese immigrants, which created Johor's initial economic base. The Kangchu system was put in place with the first settlement of Kangkar Tebrau established in 1844. The decline of the Kangchu economy at the end of the 19th century coincided with the opening of the railway line connecting Johor Bahru and the Federated Malay States in 1909 and the emergence of rubber plantations throughout the state. Under the British Resident system, Sultan Ibrahim, Sultan Abu Bakar's successor, was forced to accept a British adviser in 1904. D.G. Campbell was dispatched as the first British adviser to Johor. From the 1910s to the 1940s, Johor emerged as Malaya's top rubber producing state, a position it has held until recently. Johor was also until recently the largest oil palm producer in Malaysia.
During World War II, Johor Bahru became the last city on the Malay peninsula to fall to the Japanese. General Yamashita Tomoyuki had his headquarters on top of Bukit Serene and coordinated the downfall of Singapore.
Johor gave birth to the Malay opposition which derailed the Malayan Union plan. Malays under Dato' Onn Jaafar's leadership formed the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) in Johor on 11 May 1946. (UMNO is currently the main component party of Malaysia's ruling Barisan Nasional coalition.) In 1948, Johor joined the Federation of Malaya, which gained Independence in 1957.
Geography5th largest state by land area and 2nd most populous state in Malaysia, with a total land area of 19,210 km2 (7,420 sq mi), and a population of 3,233,434 as of 2010.
It is the southernmost state in Peninsular Malaysia, and is located between the 1°20"N and 2°35"N latitudes. The highest point in Johor is Gunung Ledang (1276 m). Gunung Ledang is also known as Mount Ophir. Johor also has a 400 km coastline on both the East and the West coasts.
Johor has 8 large islands with numerous smaller ones, namely Pulau Aur, Pulau Besar, Pulau Dayang, Pulau Lima, Pulau Pemanggil, Pulau Rawa, Pulau Sibu, Pulau Tengah and Pulau Tinggi.
ClimateJohor has a tropical rainforest climate with monsoon rain from November until February blowing from the South China Sea. The average annual rainfall is 1778 mm with average temperatures ranging between 25.5 °C (78 °F) and 27.8 °C (82 °F). Humidity is between 82 and 86%.
On 19 December 2006, a continuous heavy downpour occurred in Johor, which led to the 2006-2007 Malaysian floods. Many towns such as Muar, Kota Tinggi and Segamat were seriously flooded with water levels as high as 10 feet (3.0 m) above ground level recorded in some areas. 15 lives were lost and many possessions destroyed, and this resulted in huge financial losses in Johor. More than 100,000 victims were evacuated to flood relief centres.
Links to SingaporeJohor-Singapore Causeway and the Malaysia-Singapore Second Link. The Causeway also carries a railway line, which is now part of the main rail route linking Singapore with Thailand via Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh and Butterworth.
The Johor-Singapore Causeway (length: 1038 m) was designed by Messrs Coode, Fizmaurice, Wilson and Mitchell of Westminster, while the construction contract was awarded to Topham, Jones & Railton Ltd of London. Construction of the causeway started in 1919 and was completed in 1923.
It was preceded by a railway ferry link in 1903 which connected Johor Bahru to Singapore, then the administrative headquarters of British interests in South-East Asia. In 1909 this ferry link connected with the Johore State Railway which opened that year between Johore Bharu and Gemas, providing a direct rail route with the rest of the Federated Malay States. Prior to 1909 travellers between Singapore and the Federated Malay States had to travel by sea between Singapore and Port Dickson.
The causeway has been a source of contention ever since Singapore seceded from Malaysia in 1965. Stagnating water caused by the Causeway has raised health concerns in Johor. Malaysia proposed to replace the causeway with a bridge, allowing water, tide movement and ship movement from Pasir Gudang, the older port in Johor to the new port in Gelang Patah through the Straits of Johor. Singapore rejected this proposal, after which Malaysia came up with the idea of what became known as "the crooked half-bridge", 25m above water level, and descending halfway to link up with the low-level causeway. The railway was to have a swing bridge. The scheme was part of the Gerbang Selatan Bersepadu project. It had been previously announced that the bridge project would go ahead, even without the agreement of the Singaporean government. The bridge would become a straight bridge if the Singaporean government accepted the project. Construction work on the bridge stopped, however, on the orders of the former Prime Minister, Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, who cited the unwillingness of Malaysia to sell sand and allow the use of Malaysian airspace by Singapore as a return for Singaporean consent to the bridge's construction.
Animosity between previous leaders of both countries has abated with the rise of new leaders, Abdullah Badawi as Malaysian Prime Minister replacing Mahathir Mohamad and Lee Hsien Loong in Singapore replacing Goh Chok Tong. It has renewed talks and improved relations between countries.
Some analysts have concluded that replacing the causeway with a bridge would allow a creation of a comprehensive port system linking Johor Port and Tanjung Pelepas Port in Johor; some go on to suggest that this presents a threat to Singapore's port activity, thus explaining the initial reluctance of Singapore to agree to the causeway's replacement.
The second road connection, the Malaysia-Singapore Second Link, was completed in October 1997; the link consists of a 1920 m twin-deck bridge supporting a dual-three lane carriageway linking Kampong Ladang in Tanjung Kupang, Johor, to Jalan Ahmad Ibrahim in Tuas, Singapore.
Government and politics
Monarchyconstitutional monarchy. Johor was the first state in Malaysia to adopt the constitutional monarchy system via Undang-undang Tubuh Negeri Johor (Johor State Constitution) written by Sultan Abu Bakar. The constitutional head of Johor is the Sultan. This hereditary position can only be held by a member of the Johor Royal Family, who is descended from Sultan Abu Bakar. Until 2010 the State's Sultan since 1981 had been Sultan Iskandar Al-Haj. His Majesty died on Fri, 22 Jan 2010. Tunku Ibrahim Ismail Ibni Almarhum Sultan Iskandar was proclaimed as the new Sultan of Johor on Sat, 23 Jan 2010.
Johor was the first state and currently the only state in Malaysia that has its own military force called the Royal Johor Military Force or 'Timbalan Setia Negeri'. It is a private army of the Sultan of Johor located at Johor Bahru City.
State governmentThe state government is headed by the Chief Minister or Menteri Besar. The current Chief Minister is Datuk Seri Mohamed Khaled Nordin, the former Minister of Higher Education. He is replacing Dato' Abdul Ghani Othman, which has been Johor's Chief Minister for 18 years from 1995 till 2013. The Chief Minister is assisted by 10 members executive council (exco), whose members are selected from the state assembly members.
The legislative branch of Johor's government is the Johor State Legislative Assembly. The state assembly makes laws in matters regarding the state. Members of the Assembly are elected by citizens every five years by universal suffrage.
DistrictsThe State of Johor is divided into the districts of:
- Johor Bahru 1817.8 km², population 1,386,569 (2010)
- Majlis Bandaraya Johor Bahru (Abbreviation as MBJB or City Council of Johor Bahru. It includes areas of Johor Bahru City Centre, Taman Pelangi, Pasir Pelangi, Taman Rinting, Tasek Utara, Permas Jaya, Kangkar Tebrau, Kempas, Larkin, Majidee, Taman Mount Austin and Tebrau)
- Majlis Perbandaran Johor Bahru Tengah (MPJBT includes areas of Masai, Plentong, Ulu Tiram, Gelang Patah, Skudai, Pulai, Lima Kedai.)
- Majlis Perbandaran Pasir Gudang (MPPG includes areas of Pasir Gudang Industrial Estate, Taman Kota Masai, Taman Pasir Putih, Air Biru, Taman Tanjung Langsat, Taman Scientex, Taman Nusa Damai, Kampung Kong Kong, Kampung Sg. Tiram.)
- Iskandar Malaysia (Nusajaya includes areas of Nusajaya Town, Kota Iskandar, Gelang Patah, Port of Tanjung Pelepas, Bukit Indah and Horizon Hills)
- Kulaijaya 753.45 km², population: 251,650 (2010)
- Majlis Perbandaran Kulai (previously known as Majlis Daerah Kulai) (Includes areas of Senai, Kulai Town, Sedenak, Ayer Bemban)
- Pontian 919.5 km², population: 155,541 (2010)
- Majlis Daerah Pontian
- Kota Tinggi 3488.7 km², population: 193,210 (2010)
- Majlis Daerah Kota Tinggi
- Kluang 2851.8 km², population: 298,332 (2010)
- Majlis Perbandaran Kluang (previously known as Majlis Daerah Kluang Utara)(Includes the capital district of Kluang,and most of the northern part of Kluang district)
- Majlis Daerah Simpang Renggam (previously known as Majlis Daerah Kluang Selatan)(Includes Simpang Renggam and most of the southern part of Kluang district
- Segamat 2851.26 km², population: 189,820 (2010)
- Majlis Daerah Segamat (Majlis Daerah Segamat Utara) (Includes areas of Jementah, Buloh Kasap, Batu Enam and Gemas Baharu)
- Majlis Daerah Labis (previously known as Majlis Daerah Segamat Selatan) (Includes areas of Tenang Station, Chaah, Bekok and Pekan Air Panas)
- Muar 2346.12 km², population: 247,957 (2010)
- Majlis Perbandaran Muar (previously known as Majlis Daerah Muar Selatan) (Includes areas of Bukit Pasir, Bukit Bakri, Parit Jawa, others)
- Ledang 970.24 km², population: 136,852 (2010)
- Majlis Daerah Tangkak (previously known as Majlis Daerah Muar Utara)(Includes areas of Bukit Gambir, Sagil, Serom, Kesang, others)
- Batu Pahat 1878 km², population: 417,458 (2010)
- Majlis Perbandaran Batu Pahat (previously known as Majlis Daerah Batu Pahat Barat)(Includes most of the western part of the district,from Semerah in the north to western Rengit in the south,and the city of Batu Pahat (city),)
- Majlis Daerah Yong Peng (previously known as Majlis Daerah Batu Pahat Timur)(Includes the eastern part of Batu Pahat from Ayer Hitam in the south to Parit Sulong in the north)
- Mersing 2838.6 km², population: 70,894 (2010)
- Majlis Daerah Mersing
Iskandar MalaysiaThe Iskandar, Johor (also known as Iskandar Development Region and South Johor Economic Region), encompassing Johor Bahru, Johor Bahru Tengah, Kulaijaya, Pasir Gudang and Nusajaya is a major development zone in Johor. It was named after the late Sultan Iskandar Al-haj. At 2215 km², it is two-and-a-half times bigger than Singapore and 48 times the size of Putrajaya. It is intended to draw investment and business to Johor and will be among the biggest development projects in Malaysia. The state administrative capital will be moved to Nusajaya. Residential areas include Bukit Indah and Horizon Hills townships.
EducationJohor has several institutions of higher learning. It has three universities, namely Universiti Teknologi Malaysia situated in Skudai, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia in Parit Raja, Batu Pahat (UTHM), Universiti Teknologi MARA Johor ( UiTM) in Segamat and UiTM City Campus in Johor Bahru and several polytechnics as an example Politeknik Ibrahim Sultan and Politeknik Mersing Johor. Johor also has a teaching college called Maktab Perguruan Temenggung Ibrahim. It has one non-profit community college called Southern College situated in Skudai. Southern College was established in 1990 owing to the generous support from the communities. It is the first non-profit community college in the country wholly funded by public donation and is open to Malaysian students of all races.
Johor Education Foundation (Yayasan Pelajaran Johor) also establish tertiary education opportunity in Johor state. It offers studies from various field such as engineering, business, economics & hospitality for all Malaysian as well as qualified students from anywhere around the world.
At the primary level, Muslim Johorean students are required to attend Islamic religious school in addition to national school. Many Malay Johoreans have competent skills in Jawi script, the official script in Johor since 1885, which is still used in Islamic religious and Malay cultural matters.
As of 30 June 2008, there are 243 secondary schools in Johor educating 277 059 students. The total number of teachers in Johor at that time was 18212 which translates to overall teacher-student ratio of 15.21. The complete list of schools in Johor can be found in Wikipedia.
PortsJohor has three ports, the Pasir Gudang Port, the Port of Tanjung Pelepas and the Tanjung Langsat Port.
AirportsJohor has one international airport (30 km away from JB city centre), Senai International Airport in Senai (01’38’26’ N, 103’40’13’ E). It was opened on 6 June 1974 and has been expanded several times since. Currently, it has a 5-million passenger capacity, with a parallel taxiway under construction.
The airport is a regional hub of AirAsia group, a regional low-cost no-frills airline. Malaysia Airlines and Firefly also operate flights from Senai International Airport to some local destinations.
TelevisionTelevision in Johor consists of seven free-to-air stations. The TV stations are transmitted from Gunung Ledang, Johor (for North Johor area), Gunung Pulai, Johor (for Central and South Johor area) and Bukit Tinggi, Johor (for East Johor; TV1 and TV2 only).Three of the seven free-to-air stations are managed by Radio Televisyen Malaysia, a federal government-owned media company headquartered in Kuala Lumpur, while the four commercial stations are owned by Media Prima, an integrated media company headquartered in Bandar Utama, Selangor. In addition, Singapore TV channels like MediaCorp Channel 5, MediaCorp Channel 8, MediaCorp Suria (South Johor only), MediaCorp Vasantham, MediaCorp Channel U (South Johor only), Okto and Channel News Asia are able to be received in Central and South Johor area which are transmitted from Bukit Batok, Singapore.
- Satellite television
- Astro (All Astro Plc)
RadioRadio stations in Johor are available in the FM frequency and transmitted from Gunung Ledang, Johor (for North Johor area), Gunung Pulai, Johor (for Central and South Johor area) and Bukit Tinggi, Johor (for East Johor). Singapore radio stations like 883JiaFM (88.3MHz), BBC World Service (88.9MHz), Ria 89.7FM (89.7MHz), Gold 90.5FM (90.5MHz), HOT FM91.3/Radio 91.3 (91.3MHz), Kiss 92FM (92.0MHz), Symphony 92.4FM (92.4MHz), Y.E.S. 93.3FM (93.3MHz), 938LIVE (93.8MHz), Warna 94.2FM (94.2MHz), Class 95FM (95.0MHz), Capital 95.8FM (95.8MHz), XFM 96.3 (96.3MHz), Oli 96.8FM (96.8MHz), Love 97.2FM (97.2MHz), Power98FM (98.0MHz), 987FM (98.7MHz), Lush 99.5FM (99.5MHz) and UFM 1003 (100.3MHz; South Johor only) are able to be received in Central and South Johor (Batu Pahat, Kluang, Pontian, Kota Tinggi, Kulaijaya and Johor Bahru) which are transmitted from Bukit Batok, Singapore.
Major tourist attractions
- Sultan Abu Bakar State Mosque constructed between 1892 and 1900
- Tebrau – Arulmigu Sri Rajakaliamman Glass Temple- The world's first Hindu glass temple
- Desaru – beaches & golf courses along the South China Sea
- Johor Bahru – shopping, night market, colonial/royal district
- Endau Rompin National Park – pristine jungle
- Kota Tinggi 34 meter waterfall.
- Kukup – a fishing village with seafood restaurants built over water
- Muar – picturesque riverside town
- Seribuat Archipelago – islands with beautiful beaches, coral reefs
- Tanjung Piai – the southernmost tip of mainland Asia
- Danga Bay – The new waterfront city
- Pekan Air Panas – hot springs, waterfall, local fruits available
- Bandar Nusajaya – new administration of Johor Government
- Bukit Indah – new shopping district, Jusco, Tesco & Giant
- Horizon Hills – best Asia pacific golf development 2009 by CNBC
- Pulau Dayang – major diving attraction, snorkelling, fishing
- Gunung Ledang – legendary mountain/highest peak in South of Peninsula Malaysia, famous of mountain hiking
- Ayer Panas Waterfall – Malaysian "Jiu Zai Kou" with crystal clear water from the peak of Gunung Ledang
- Tangkak – hometown of famous "Tangkak Beef Noodle", shopping paradise for fabric, served best handmade noodle in the world
- Pulau Kukus – This island is close to Pulau Sibu Tengah and popular for snorkelling activity
- Tampoi Muniswaran Hindu Temple during Thaipusam
- Legoland Malaysia - Opened in early 2013
National parks and forest reservesJohor is also noted for its national parks. Johor currently has five national parks, with a combined area of more than 700 km² and several smaller recreational forest. Almost all recreational parks are based around a mountain. Johor also has the third largest mangrove forest reserve in Peninsular Malaysia (167 km²).
Mausoleum of Sultan Mahmud Mangkat Dijulang
ReligionAs of 2010 Census the population of Johor is 58.2% Muslim, 29.6% Buddhist, 6.6% Hindu, 3.3% Christian, 1.3% Taoist or Chinese religion adherent, 1.4% follower of other religions, and 0.7% non-religious.
CultureThe culture of Johor is influenced by visitors and traders throughout history. A major influence was the Bugis – who first set foot in Malaysia in Johor before continuing on to Melaka, Linggi, Selangor, Pahang and Terengganu – Javanese and the Arabs. They had a powerful impact on the politics of Johor, Pahang, Terengganu and Selangor. The strong Arab influence is apparent in art performances like Zapin and Hamdolok, musical instruments like gambus. Other visible legacies in Johor Bahru are the Arabic names of places such as Wadi Hana and Wadi Hassan in areas populated by the Arab community from Hadhramaut in the southeast of Yemen. Wadi means valley in Arabic.
LanguageThe Johoreans' Malay, also known as Johor-Riau Malay and originally spoken in Johor, Riau, Malacca and Singapore, has been adopted as the basis for both the Malaysian and Indonesian national languages, Malay and Indonesian, respectively. Due to Johor's location at the confluence of trade routes within Maritime Southeast Asia, as well as the former economic might and influence of Malacca and Johor, the dialect spread as the region's lingua franca since the 15th century; hence the adoption of the dialect as the basis for the national languages.
- Cekak Musang and Teluk Belanga are types of collar design for the male garment 'baju melayu'. It is said that Teluk Belanga was designed by Sultan Abu Bakar in 1866 to commemorate the shift of Johor's capital from Teluk Belanga to Johor Bahru. The Teluk Belanga design is a simple hemmed round collar with a stiff stitching called 'tulang belut' or 'eel's spine', with a loop at the end to fit a 'kancing'. This collar design creates an exposed neck in contrast to the neck-covering Cekak Musang design that is a raised stiff collar of about 1–2 cm with an opening down to the chest. The collar ends have matching holes to fit buttons.
- Kurung Johor
- Kurung Riau
- Belah kebaya panjang
The name is believed to derive from the nine (sembilan) villages or nagari in the Minangkabau language (now known as luak) settled by the Minangkabau, a people originally from West Sumatra (in present-day Indonesia). Minangkabau features are still visible today in traditional architecture and the dialect of Malay spoken.
Unlike the hereditary monarchs of the other royal Malay states, the ruler of Negeri Sembilan is known as Yang di-Pertuan Besar instead of Sultan. The election of the Ruler is also unique. He is selected by the council of Undangs who lead the four biggest districts of Sungai Ujong, Jelebu, Johol, and Rembau, making it one of the more democratic monarchies.
The capital of Negeri Sembilan is Seremban. The royal capital is Seri Menanti in the district of Kuala Pilah. Other important towns are Port Dickson and Nilai.
The Arabic honorific title of the state is Darul Khusus ("the Special Abode").
The ethnic composition in 2005 was:Malay (497,896 or 54.96%), Chinese (220,141 or 24.3%), Indian (137,588 or 15.18%), Other (50,267 or 5.54%).
HistoryThe Minangkabaus from Sumatra settled in Negeri Sembilan in the 14th century under the protection of the Malacca Sultanate, and later under the protection of its successor, the Sultanate of Johor. As Johor weakened in the 18th century, attacks by the Bugis forced the Minangkabaus to seek protection from their homeland. The Minangkabau ruler, Sultan Abdul Jalil, obliged by sending his near relative, Raja Melewar. When he arrived, he found that another royal, Raja Khatib had already established himself as ruler. He declared war against Raja Khatib and became the ruler of Negeri Sembilan. The Sultan of Johor confirmed his position by granting the title Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan (He Who is Highest Lord of the Nine States) in 1773. After Raja Melewar's death, a series of disputes arose over the succession. For a considerable period, the local nobles applied to the Minangkabau ruler in Sumatra for a ruler. However, competing interests supported different candidates, often resulting in instability and civil war.
In 1873, the British intervened militarily in a civil war in Sungai Ujong to preserve British economic interests, and placed the country under the control of a British Resident. Jelebu followed in 1886, and the remaining states in 1895. In 1897, when the Federated Malay States (FMS) was established, Sungai Ujong and Jelebu were reunited to the confederation of small states and the whole, under the old name of the Negeri Sembilan, was placed under a single Resident and became a member of the FMS.
The number of states within Negeri Sembilan has fluctuated over the years, the federation now consists of six states and a number of sub-states under their suzerainty. The former state of Naning was annexed to Malacca, Kelang to Selangor, and Segamat to Johor.
Negeri Sembilan endured Japanese occupation in World War II between 1941 and 1945, and joined the Federation of Malaya in 1948, and became a state of Malaysia in 1963.
Government and politics
ConstitutionThe Constitution of Negeri Sembilan came into force on 26 March 1959. It is divided into two sections. The constitution establishes that the state's form of government is constitutional monarchy.
The RulerDuli Yang Maha Mulia Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan and he holds office for life. The state's constitution proclaims the Yang di-Pertuan Besar is vested with the Executive Power of the state, is the Head of the Religion of Islam in the state and is the fountain of all honour and dignity for the state. The current Yang di-Pertuan Besar is His Royal Highness Tuanku Muhriz ibni Almarhum Tuanku Munawir. His Royal Highness succeeds Almarhum Tuanku Jaafar Ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman who died on 27 December 2008.
Unlike Malaysia's eight other Royal Malay states, the Ruler of Negeri Sembilan is elected to his office by the territorial chiefs of the state. These chiefs are titled Undang. Only four of the Undangs have the right to vote in the election for the Ruler of the State. They are:
- The Undang of Sungai Ujong
- The Undang of Jelebu
- The Undang of Johol
- The Undang of Rembau
State Executive CouncilThe State Executive Council is established by the 1959 constitution. It consists of the Menteri Besar, who is its Chairman, and ten other members. The Menteri Besar and the other members of the council are appointed by the Yang Di-Pertuan Besar from the members of the State Assembly. The current Menteri Besar or Chief Minister of the state is Dato' Seri Utama Muhammad Hassan.
ReligionAs of 2010 the population of Negeri Sembilan is 60.3% Muslim, 21.2% Buddhist, 13.4% Hindu, 2.4% Christian, 0.5% Taoist or Chinese religion follower, 1.4% follower of other religions, and 0.8% non-religious.
EconomyThe state's manufacturing sector contributing almost half of the state’s gross domestic product (GDP), followed by services and tourism (40.3%), agriculture (6%), construction (2.2%) and mining (0.3%). Manufacturing activity includes electrical and electronics, textiles, furniture, chemicals, machinery, metal works and rubber products. The main industrial areas are Senawang, Sungai Gadut, Tuanku Jaafar Industrial Park, Nilai and Tanah Merah in Port Dickson. Coca-Cola, which is in the midst of setting up its billion ringgit bottling plant in Bandar Enstek.
Negeri Sembilan is mainly an agricultural state. However, the establishment of several industrial estates enhanced the manufacturing sector as a major contributor towards the state economy.
Agricultural activity includes rubber and oil palm plantations, livestock, fruit orchards and vegetable farming. About 3,099 square kilometers are used for rubber and oil palm plantations.
DistrictsThe state comprises 7 districts:
It originally consisted of 9 districts:
- Jelai (Inas)
- Kelang (now a district in Selangor)
- Naning (now a district in Malacca)
- Segamat (now in Johor) / Pasir Besar (now in Tampin)
- Sungai Ujong
- Alu Panah (now divided between Jelebu and Pahang State)